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Luca Nguyen
Luca Nguyen

3D Bioprinting For Reconstructive Surgery:Techn...

Despite the increasing laboratory research in the growing field of 3D bioprinting, there are few reports of successful translation into surgical practice. This review outlines the principles of 3D bioprinting including software and hardware processes, biocompatible technological platforms and suitable bioinks. The advantages of 3D bioprinting over traditional tissue engineering techniques in assembling cells, biomaterials and biomolecules in a spatially controlled manner to reproduce native tissue macro-, micro- and nanoarchitectures are discussed, together with an overview of current progress in bioprinting tissue types relevant for plastic and reconstructive surgery. If successful, this platform technology has the potential to biomanufacture autologous tissue for reconstruction, obviating the need for donor sites or immunosuppression. The biological, technological and regulatory challenges are highlighted, with strategies to overcome these challenges by using an integrated approach from the fields of engineering, biomaterial science, cell biology and reconstructive microsurgery.

3D Bioprinting for Reconstructive Surgery:Techn...

Introduction: The disciplines of 3D bioprinting and surgery have witnessed incremental transformations over the last century. 3D bioprinting is a convergence of biology and engineering technologies, mirroring the clinical need to produce viable biological tissue through advancements in printing, regenerative medicine and materials science. To outline the current and future challenges of 3D bioprinting technology in surgery. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases between 2000 and 2019. A narrative synthesis of the resulting literature was produced to discuss 3D bioprinting, current and future challenges, the role in personalized medicine and transplantation surgery and the global 3D bioprinting market. Results: The next 20 years will see the advent of bioprinted implants for surgical use, however the path to clinical incorporation will be fraught with an array of ethical, regulatory and technical challenges of which each must be surmounted. Previous clinical cases where regulatory processes have been bypassed have led to poor outcomes and controversy. Speculated roles of 3D bioprinting in surgery include the production of de novo organs for transplantation and use of autologous cellular material for personalized medicine. The promise of these technologies has sparked an industrial revolution, leading to an exponential growth of the 3D bioprinting market worth billions of dollars. Conclusion: Effective translation requires the input of scientists, engineers, clinicians, and regulatory bodies: there is a need for a collaborative effort to translate this impactful technology into a real-world healthcare setting and potentially transform the future of surgery.

We used CAD/CAM technology to develop a surgical treatment plan. Based on the tumor size and areas of invasive disease, segmental mandibulectomy was simulated. We modeled the simulated cut with the iliac bone in the defect area in the width, thickness, and angle. The place for osteotomy of the iliac bone was determined, and the virtual reconstruction was performed. A three dimensional solid model, osteotomy template of the lesion, and the iliac bone were developed through a 3D printer. Pre-bent titanium plates were prepared by the reconstructive model of rapid prototyping.

Current methods for reconstructive surgery have been largely inadequate in treating volumetric muscle loss. As a result, 3D printing technology has emerged as an up and coming solution to help reconstruct muscle.

Existing 3D bioprinting technology is not without its problems. Implanting the hydrogel-based scaffolds successfully requires a very specific biomaterial to be printed that will adhere to the defect site. While 3D bioprinted scaffolds mimicking skeletal muscles have been created in vitro, they have not been successfully used on an actual subject.

In 2019, bioengineers at the University of Washington School of Medicine and the UW College of Engineering developed a breakthrough 3D technique for bioprinting tissues, as reported by ScienceAdvances. This success, along with 3D techniques created by the University of California Berkeley and other institutions, show promise in producing on-demand living body tissue, blood vessels, bones and organs.

In the future, new materials and technologies that fulfill dental requirements should be further developed and applied. For example, the Co-Cr alloy material used in the restoration is one of the application materials for DMLS; however, its properties should be further studied to ensure the safety and applicability of the restoration [143]. In addition, in clinical applications, 3D scanners, CBCT, and CT will be better integrated with 3D printing technologies based on their advantages, which will further promote the development of the digital process, not only simplifying the traditional modeling and production process, but can also make the products more accurate, streamlining the production process and lowering the labor cost [128]. In recent years, 3D printing has progressed toward the cellular level, and 3D bioprinting provides unlimited possibilities for the creation of various tissues. The application of 3D printing in oral soft tissue biomaterials has been reflected from experimental to clinical [144]. For example, Nesic et al. described the potential of stem cells, 3D bioprinting, gene therapy, and layered bionic technology, which can be used to regenerate periodontal tissue [145]. To improve the whole CAD/CAM process, machine learning (ML) has been applied to all aspects of the technology [146]. The application of ML algorithms covers all the main aspects that directly affect the quality of the final 3D printed parts, including 3D printing design and other aspects related to the efficiency of the design and manufacturing process [147]. In the near future, ML will be more widely used in the field of 3D printing. Additionally, virtual reality design can interact with 3D printing technologies in the field of dentistry. For example, individuals can directly perform the 3D design of the restoration in the virtual world and observe the 3D restoration products to better estimate the feasibility of the products and reduce the wastage of time and resources. In summary, we anticipate that 3D printing technology will have a bright future.

In developed countries, 3D printing has found a growing range of health care applications. Many of these uses have been directly relevant to plastic and reconstructive surgery-including the ability to print implants, plates, and other surgical devices, customized to the individual patient's anatomy.

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is the largest organization of board-certified plastic surgeons in the world. Representing more than 11,000 physician members worldwide, the society is recognized as a leading authority and information source on cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. ASPS comprises more than 92 percent of all board-certified plastic surgeons in the United States. Founded in 1931, the society represents physicians certified by The American Board of Plastic Surgery or The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

Dr. Bagwe is a leading orthopedic surgeon specializing in ankle and foot reconstruction. As aa St. Louis Cardinals team physician, Dr. Bagwe knows how to fix ankles and feet very well and is a world-class reconstructive surgeon. If you are looking for an orthopedic surgeon near you then look no further. Dr. Bagwe is an industry leader when it comes to foot and ankle surgery doctors in St. Louis. Dr. Bagwe and his friendly and professional team is ready to welcome you and tell you everything you need to know.

Surgical uses of 3D printing-centric therapies have a history beginning in the mid-1990s with anatomical modeling for bony reconstructive surgery planning. Patient-matched implants were a natural extension of this work, leading to truly personalized implants that fit one unique individual.[155] Virtual planning of surgery and guidance using 3D printed, personalized instruments have been applied to many areas of surgery including total joint replacement and craniomaxillofacial reconstruction with great success.[156] One example of this is the bioresorbable trachial splint to treat newborns with tracheobronchomalacia[157] developed at the University of Michigan. The use of additive manufacturing for serialized production of orthopedic implants (metals) is also increasing due to the ability to efficiently create porous surface structures that facilitate osseointegration. The hearing aid and dental industries are expected to be the biggest area of future development using the custom 3D printing technology.[158]

The conventional means of treating patients with grave organ failures currently involve using autografts, a graft of tissue from one point to another of the same individual's body, or organ transplants from a donor. Researchers in the fields of bioprinting and tissue engineering are hoping to soon change that and be able to create tissues, blood vessels, and organs on demand.

3D bioprinting refers to the use of additive manufacturing processes to deposit materials known as bioinks to create tissue-like structures that can be used in medical fields. Tissue engineering refers to the various evolving technologies, including bioprinting, to grow replacement tissues and organs in the laboratory for use in treating injury and disease. 041b061a72


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