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Logan Adams
Logan Adams

1 Percent Epi 04 __LINK__



Methods: We used randomly selected tissue blocks taken from breast tissue slices obtained by s.c. mastectomy at the time of forensic autopsy to measure histologic features using quantitative microscopy. The proportions of the biopsy occupied by cells (estimated by nuclear area), glandular structures, and collagen were determined. These measurements were examined in relation to the percent density in the faxitron image of the tissue slice from which the biopsy was taken and other risk factors for breast cancer.




1 Percent Epi 04



Results: The percent mammographic density was associated with the proportion of the area of the biopsy occupied by nuclei, both epithelial and nonepithelial, and by collagen and the area of glandular structures. Several other risk factors for breast cancer, notably body weight, parity, and number of births, and menopausal status, that are associated with variations in mammographic density, were also associated with differences in one or more of these tissue features.


Although the PSID is working to correct these apparent data problems, which are concentrated in a very small number of cases, several features of this analysis reduce their impact on the estimates reported. First, the analyses here begin by dropping all observations with family income of $1 or less. Second, they trim 1 percentile of the income distribution from the bottom and top of the remaining observations. This not only reduces the impact of very low incomes on the estimates, but also has the effect of eliminating concern about the inconsistent treatment of very high incomes in the PSID.18


Likewise, a recent working paper by Karen Dynan, Douglas Elmendorf, and Daniel Sichel finds a 36% increase in the standard deviation of percentage changes in family income between the 1970s and the 2000s. Their method is similar to our analysis of the standard deviation of log differences, which found a 51% increase in short-term changes in family income over the same time period. Again, the lower rise in income volatility found in their analysis appears to be mostly because of the differing data choices they make.25


To recognize this consistency, it is important to understand that the CBO study includes the analysis of two samples. First, the CBO tracked individual earnings instability for all workers from 1980 through 2003, a period when Social Security wage data were available for workers regardless of earnings level. Looking at the standard deviation of year-to-year percentage changes in earnings, the CBO found remarkably high levels of earnings instability but little consistent trend in earnings instability for individual workers from 1980 through 2003, except for an upswing in instability in recent years.


14. Logged income is frequently used in economics research and has two favorable properties for analyses of income variance. First, it makes variance mean-independent (i.e., independent of the absolute level of income). Second, it ensures that equivalent increases and decreases in income are treated symmetrically (as they are not when the measure is percentage changes in income).


16. The results are not appreciably different when computed using percent differences in raw income, but they are sensitive to the maximum percentage increase allowed. For this reason, the log-difference results are presented.


18. Versions of this analysis run with larger percentile trends, e.g. 2% and 3%, give similar results. The level of income volatility is dampened somewhat, but the basic upward trend is consistent regardless of the chosen trim.


Results: Median time to first surveillance was 2.6 years. Surveillance rates for 1, 3, and 5 years were 17.6%, 55.8%, and 74.5%, respectively. Twenty-six percent had no surveillance event. Polyp recurrence rates for 1, 3, and 5 years were 10.9%, 38.2%, and 52.6%, respectively. Males and younger patients were more likely to undergo surveillance and showed higher polyp recurrence rates.


The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for surveillance following the index colonoscopy and polypectomy are shown in Fig. 1. The first surveillance event could have been any of the four procedures: colonoscopy with polypectomy, colonoscopy only, sigmoidoscopy, or barium enema. The median time to the surveillance event (i.e., time it took for 50% of the cohort to have undergone a surveillance event) was 954 days (2.6 years). Almost 18% of the cohort underwent a surveillance event in 12 months (365 days), 55.8% within 3 years, and 74.5% within 5 years. Twenty-six percent of the subjects had none of the assessed surveillance events at any time while in the cohort.


A follow-up colonoscopy combined with a polypectomy would likely be done during the study period if patients in the cohort were diagnosed yet again with a polyp. Thus, the use of a colonoscopy with a polypectomy can serve as a proxy measure for polyp recurrence or growth because a polypectomy would need to be done to remove any recurring or new polyps. Like the time to first surveillance event, a survival curve was also plotted for the first surveillance colonoscopy with polypectomy done for the study cohort (Fig. 2). The percentage of subjects receiving a colonoscopy with a polypectomy increased from 10.9% by the end of the first year to 38.2% by the end of 3 years and to 52.6% by the end of 5 years.


We then pooled the RRs from individual studies using a random-effects model (Review Manager Version 5.1). We evaluated heterogeneity across trials using the I2 statistics, which describes the percentage of total variation across studies that is not due to chance, and by calculating the P value for heterogeneity from the χ-squared test. Finally, we examined the association between any APLA and recurrent VTE in studies that enrolled only patients with an unprovoked first VTE.


As of June 27, 2018, 210 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 were reported from 36 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to June 6, 2018. Ill people ranged in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 28. Sixty-seven percent of ill people were female. Of 201 people with information available, 96 (48%) were hospitalized, including 27 people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. Five deaths were reported from Arkansas, California, Minnesota (2), and New York.


As of May 30, 2018, 197 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported from 35 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to May 12, 2018. Ill people range in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 29. Sixty-eight percent of ill people are female. Of 187 people with information available, 89 (48%) have been hospitalized, including 26 people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. Five deaths have been reported from Arkansas (1), California (1), Minnesota (2), and New York (1).


As of May 15, 2018, 172 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported from 32 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to May 2, 2018. Ill people range in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 29. Sixty-five percent of ill people are female. Of 157 people with information available, 75 (48%) have been hospitalized, including 20 people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. One death was reported from California.


As of May 8, 2018, 149 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported from 29 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to April 25, 2018. Ill people range in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 30. Sixty-five percent of ill people are female. Of 129 people with information available, 64 (50%) have been hospitalized, including 17 people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. One death was reported from California.


State and local health officials continue to interview ill people to ask about the foods they ate and other exposures they had before they became ill. Of the 112 people interviewed, 102 (91%) reported eating romaine lettuce in the week before their illness started. This percentage is significantly higher than results from a survey Cdc-pdf[787 KB] of healthy people in which 46% reported eating romaine lettuce in the week before they were interviewed.


As of May 1, 2018, 121 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported from 25 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to April 21, 2018. Ill people range in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 29. Sixty-three percent of ill people are female. Of 102 people with information available, 52 (51%) have been hospitalized, including 14 people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. One death was reported from California.


As of April 26, 2018, 98 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported from 22 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to April 20, 2018. Ill people range in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 31. Sixty-five percent of ill people are female. Of 87 people with information available, 46 (53%) have been hospitalized, including 10 people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. No deaths have been reported.


As of April 25, 2018, 84 people infected with the outbreak strain of E. coli O157:H7 have been reported from 19 states. A list of the states and the number of cases in each can be found on the Case Count Map page. Illnesses started on dates ranging from March 13, 2018 to April 12, 2018. Ill people range in age from 1 to 88 years, with a median age of 31. Sixty-five percent of ill people are female. Forty-two ill people have been hospitalized, including nine people who developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. No deaths have been reported. 041b061a72


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